SCOPE OF TITLE IX
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels.1 If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX.2
Title IX protects students, employees, applicants for admission and employment, and other persons from all forms of sex discrimination, including discrimination based on gender identity or failure to conform to stereotypical notions of masculinity or femininity. All students (as well as other persons) at recipient institutions are protected by Title IX—regardless of their sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, part- or full-time status, disability, race, or national origin—in all aspects of a recipient’s educational programs and activities.
As part of their obligations under Title IX, all recipients of Federal financial assistance must designate at least one employee to coordinate their efforts to comply with and carry out their responsibilities under Title IX and must notify all students and employees of that employee’s contact information.3 This employee is generally referred to as the Title IX coordinator.
The essence of Title IX is that an institution may not exclude, separate, deny benefits to, or otherwise treat differently any person on the basis of sex unless expressly authorized to do so under Title IX or the Department’s implementing regulations.4 When a recipient is considering relying on one of the exceptions to this general rule (several of which are discussed below), Title IX coordinators should be involved at every stage and work with school officials and legal counsel to help determine whether the exception is applicable and, if so, properly executed.